Population and Land : Adapting Land Tenure Systems
This research programme ended with the publication of a series of monographs and participated in the effort of development in the cooperation between Centers and in the promotion of research themes insufficiently dealt with.
Context and objectives
Given the urgent problems facing the least developed countries in the world, many of which are experiencing serious food shortages, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has given its Food Security Program top priority. Most of these countries are also experiencing very high population growth and will therefore have to make efforts in agricultural and food production similar to what the green revolution made possible in Asia from 1975 to 1990, given that grain imports will not increase adequately to match the rapid growth of food requirements because of inadequate effective demand. At the same time, these countries will not benefit from biotechnological breakthroughs for another ten or even twenty years and most of the countries have experienced by food shortages in the recent past. These factors mean that most of these countries will have to change the scale of their development.
In such conditions it is urgent to undertake an examination of the possibilities for adapting land tenure systems to population modes and structures in countries with high population growth. This examination may be carried out at a local level in extremely varied contexts. It could come in the form of monographs done following the same model, applied to countries suffering from large food deficits, which will have to ensure increases in production similar to those resulting from the green revolution in Asia from 1975 to 1990. These Cicred monographs give an account of the effects of modifications in land rights on the agricultural activity of the regions, the domestic units and of the people themselves, as well as on rural development. These monographs should also give an account of changes in the way land is used and in the yields obtained induced by land reform and the increased security of land tenure.
The national study cases of Burkina Faso, Niger and Tunisia have dealt with the interrelations existing between population factors in these countries, its impact on environment and natural resources access and management. They have reviewed the available data in population, natural resources and environmental conservation all together to ensure the compatibility and coherence of future development policies. The aim of these national surveys was the formulation of a set of advice for national developers about the identification of clear priorities and corresponding capacities in order to match adapted development conditions. For instance, one of the most important recommendations of the Burkina Faso research has been to encourage the accompanying of the processes of agricultural activities in order to monitor the “mining” utilization of scarce resources in a fragile environment. In Niger, the study demonstrated, for example, that the demographic growth is already an insuperable obstacle to a sustainable resource management. The survey in Tunisia individuated, in particular, the consolidation of “habous” pieces of land as a valuable political decision for accrued agricultural productivity of direct farmers.
A large number of research teams have been involved in the research programme.
· Burkina Faso:
o the Institut National des Sciences des Sociétés (INSS)
o the Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie (INSD).
o the Faculté d’Agronomie de l’Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey
o the Direction de la Statistique et des Comptes Nationaux (DSCN).
o the Office of Population Studies, University of San Carlos
o the Farm and Agriculture Resource Management Institute
o the Center for Social Research, Leyte State University, Baybay
· Tunisia (« Dynamiques des populations rurales et évolution des milieux naturels », DYPEN programme)
o Institut des Régions Arides (IRA), Médenine
o Institut de recherche pour le Développement (IRD), mission en Tunisie
o Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques de Tunisie (INRAT), Tunis.
· Other countries
o The International Global Change Institute, Waikato University, Hamilton, New Zealand.
o The French Institut de recherche pour le développement, Paris
o The Department of Demography, UCL, Louvain-La-Neuve
André Quesnel (IRD) was the coordinator for French-speaking countries while Ian Pool (Waikato University) was in charge of the Philippines. Cicred is also grateful to the other colleagues (Gavin Jones, Francis Gendreau, Gerald Ward, etc.) who were involved in the final edition process.
This programme has been launched in 1997 by Cicred with support from the Land Tenure Service (SDAA, FAO, Rome). Philippe Collomb, André Quesnel and Ian Pool have been instrumental in the definition of the projects and its implementation in four different sites. The countries studied were Burkina Faso, Niger, Tunisia and the Philippines.
More detail on the research protocol may be found in the charter written by Philippe Collomb at the outset of the research programme
See the charter in English
See the annexures to the charter
The Committee has already completed in 2003 the publication of three monographs based on its FAO-funded research programme on "Population Dynamics, Land Availability and Adapting Land Tenure". The publication of the last report (Tunisia) has been unfortunately delayed.
· “Population Dynamics, land availability and adapting land tenure systems: Burkina Faso, a case study”.
This research has been led by two institutions of Burkina Faso: the Institut National des Sciences des Sociétés (INSS) and the Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie (INSD). The authors are Issa Drabo, François Ilboudo, Bernard Tallet. The coordinator for French-speaking countries was André QUESNEL. The scientific coordinator was Bernard TALLET. The editor was Jean-Yves MARCHAL.
· “Population Dynamics, land availability and adapting land tenure systems: Niger, a case study”.
This research has been led by two institutions of Niger: the Faculté d’Agronomie de l’Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey and the Direction de la Statistique et des Comptes Nationaux (DSCN). The authors are Jean-Pierre Guengant and Maxime Banoin. The coordinator for French-speaking countries was André Quesnel. The scientific coordinator was Jean-Pierre Guengant. The editors were Francis Gendreau and Mumpasi Lututala.
· “ Population Dynamics, Land Availability and Adapting Land Tenure Systems : Philippines, a case Study ”.
This research has been led by four institutions of the Philippines: the Office of Population Studies, University of San Carlos, the Farm and Agriculture Resource Management Institute, the Center for Social Research, Leyte State University, Baybay, and the International Global Change Institute, Waikato University (Hamilton, New Zealand). The authors are Dr. Soccorro Gultiano and Dr Peter URICH, with the Collaboration of Dr. Edwin Balbarino and Dr. Efren Saz. The coordinator for Anglophone and Asian countries was Ian Pool. The scientific coordinator was Peter Urich. The editors were Gavin Jones and R. G. Ward.
· NEW “Population Dynamics, land availability and adapting land tenure systems: Tunisia, a case study”. (draft available for download before final publication)
This research has been led by an association of Tunisian institutions: « Dynamiques des populations rurales et évolution des milieux naturels » (DYPEN). The authors are Ali ABAAB, Laurent Auclair, Mohamed Elloumi, Mouldi Lahmar, Fadhel Moussa, Michel Picouet, Frédéric Sandron and Mongi Sghaier. The coordinator for French-speaking countries was André Quesnel. The scientific coordinator was Michel Picouet. The editor was Dominique Tabutin. The temporary report is available for consultation and the final publication is in progress.